Organized Labor

37c. Early National Organizations

Big Bill Haywood
Defendants in the Steunenberg murder case, Charles Moyer, Bill Haywood, and George Pettibone.

Divide and conquer. That simple strategy gave the owners the advantage over labor until the dawn of the 20th century. Laborers did not all have the same goals. By favoring one group over another, the bosses could create internal dissent in any union. Unions were spread from town to town. Unity among them might make a more effective boycott or strike, but bringing diverse groups together across a large area was extremely difficult.

Owners were smart enough to circulate blacklists. These lists contained the names of any workers active in the union. If anyone on the list would show up in another town trying to get hired (or to start another union), the employers would be wise. Still, the ratio of labor to management was so large that national organization was inevitable. The first group to clear the hurdles was the National Labor Union.

William Sylvis and the NLU

William Sylvis worked in many trades in his life, from wagon making to canal boat building. Later, he became a pioneer in organizing and motivating labor unions.

By 1866, there were about 200,000 workers in local unions across the United States. William Sylvis seized the opportunity presented by these numbers and established the first nationwide labor organization, named the National Labor Union. Sylvis had very ambitious goals. Not only did the NLU fight for higher wages and shorter hours, Sylvis took labor activity into the political arena. The NLU supported legislation banning prison labor, land reform laws to keep public holdings out of the hands of speculators, and national currency reform to raise farm prices.

It brought together skilled and unskilled workers, as well as farmers. The National Labor Union stopped short of admitting African Americans. Racist tendencies of the times prevailed, despite the wisdom of bringing as many workers as possible into the fold. Unfortunately for the NLU, it tried to represent too many different groups. Farmers had their own agenda, and skilled workers often had different realities than the unskilled. When the Panic of 1873 hit America, the union was severely disabled. Soon after, the National Labor Union withered away.

The Knights of Labor

The Knights of Labor soon inherited the mantle of organized labor. Begun by Uriah Stephens as a secret society in 1869, the Knights admitted all wage earners into their ranks, including women and African Americans. The philosophy was simple: class was more important than race or gender. For such a group to influence the federal government, complete solidarity would be required.

The Knights supported the entire political agenda of the NLU and more. They advocated limits on immigration, restrictions on child labor, and government ownership of railroads, telegraphs, and telephones. At the height of its membership in 1886, the Knights boasted 750,000 workers. But then disaster struck.

Tragedy in Haymarket Square

On May 1, 1886, International Workers Day, local chapters of the Knights went on strike demanding an eight-hour day for all laborers. At a rally in Haymarket Square in Chicago on May 4, someone threw a bomb into the crowd. One police officer died and several crowd members sustained injuries.

Who was responsible? No one was really sure, but the American press, government, and general public blamed the Knights of Labor. Leader Terence Powderly condemned the bombing to no avail. Americans associated labor activity with anarchists and mob violence. Membership began to fall. Soon the Knights were merely a shadow of their former size. But labor leaders had learned some valuable lessons. The next national organization of workers would endure.

On the Web
What's the American Federation of Labour up to today? Those interested in the state of organized labor in the United States should stop by for a look.
Bill Haywood Trial 1907
Relations between the Western Federation of Miners and the Western Mine Owners' Association at the turn of the 20th century were not pleasant. When the state of Idaho prosecuted radical labor leader Bill Haywood in 1907 for ordering the assassination of former governor Frank Steunenberg, it led to trouble. According to this site, it sparked "fifteen years of union bombings and murders, fifteen years of mine owner intimidation and greed, and fifteen years of government abuse of process and denials of liberties spilled into the national headlines." Created by Doug Linder, Professor of Law, this fascinating website is devoted to examining the trial and the times.
Joe Hill's Songs
Joe Hill, a Swedish immigrant, labor activist and martyr, was known worldwide for writing songs based on the experiences of the working man. Many of these were published in the IWW's Little Red Songbook. This webpage provides access to the texts of dozens of songs written by Hill and tributes paid to him after his controversial execution for murder.
Knights of Labor: Beyond Labor's Veil
Gerald Friedman, an Economics professor at University of Massachusetts at Amherst, provides a brief history of the Knights of Labor in his review of Robert E. Weir's book, "Beyond Labor's Veil: The Culture of the Knights of Labor."
Mother Jones, the "Miners' Angel"
This interesting biography of "Mother" Mary Jones, labor activist for nearly 60 years, covers her involvement with the Knights of Labor, United Mine Workers and the Industrial Workers of the World.
William "Big Bill" Haywood
We tend to think of strong individualism when we think of the American West, but western miners joined the labor movement, too. Learn more in this bio of William "Big Bill" Haywood who organized a chapter of the Western Federation of Miners in Silver City, Idaho, and later played a key role in forming the IWW.
The Knights of Labor's objectives included "To secure for both sexes equal pay for equal work" and "The reduction of the hours of labor to eight per day."
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At age 84 "Mother" Jones traveled across the country to bring the government's and the nation's attention to the "machine-gun massacre" of miners and their families in Ludlow, Colorado. Find out why she was called the "Miners' Angel."
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Looking for some drama? The Chicago Historical Society presents The Haymarket Dramas, a 5 act tragedy complete with a prologue and an epilogue.
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